2004), we added to the IARC evaluations our assessment of the main occupations in which the agent may be found and the target organ for carcinogenicity. For arsenic in drinking water, the most recent ARC evaluation of arsenic [Volume 84; (ARC 2004)], there was sufficient evidence in humans that arsenic causes cancers of the urinary bladder, lung, and skin; the evidence for cancers of the liver and kidney was limited.Volume 86 focuses on cobalt in hard-metals and cobalt sulfate, gallium arsenide, indium phosphide, and vanadium pentoxide (IARC, in press a) In our article (Siemiatycki et al. (d) Absence of data on cancer in humans; the final evaluation for carcinogenicity was upgraded from 2B to 2A based on evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals. Chemical contamination is defined as the unintended exposure of a healthcare professional to hazardous drugs.
Previously, lead and inorganic lead compounds were classified in Group 2B, whereas organic lead compounds were classified in Group 3. Overall Evaluations of Carcinogenicity: An Updating of IARC Monographs Volumes 1 to 42.
The most recent IARC evaluation results in an upgrading of inorganic lead compounds to Group 2A; organic lead compounds remain in Group 3 (IARC, in press b).
The authors declare they have no competing financial interests.
REFERENCESCogliano VJ, Grosse Y, Baan RA, Straif K, Secretan MB, El Ghissassi F, and the Working Group for Volume 88. Summary of IARC Monographs on Formaldehyde, 2-Butoxyethanol, and 1-tert-Butoxy-2-Propanoh Environ Health Perspect 105-1208.
https://au/nla.cat-vn1938145 IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Overall evaluations of carcinogenicity : an updating of IARC monographs volumes 1 to 42 : this publication represents the views and expert opinions of an IARC ad-hoc Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, which met in Lyon, 10-18 March 1987.
Lyon, France : Geneva, Switzerland : World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer ; Distributed by the World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans.
Three substances for which there were no previous IARC evaluations have now been evaluated and classified: gallium arsenide is classified as a Group I human carcinogen, indium phosphide as a Group 2A (probable) human carcinogen, and vanadium pentoxide as a Group 2B (possible) human carcinogen (IARC, in press a). Some Drinking-Water Disinfectants and Contaminants, Including Arsenic.